Solid state detectors with an energy bandwidth > 150 eV for the Kalpha emission lines of the 3d transition metals cannot be used for X-ray emission spectroscopy with lifetime resolution. Bragg optics using a perfect single crystal monochromator (like the beamline monochromator for the incident energy) can achieve the required energy resolution. Several geometrical schemes to realize such a secondary spectroscopy have been thought off and implemented at synchrotron radiation sources as well as laboratory X-ray and/or particle sources (e.g. protons):

- Johann

- Johansson

- van Howe

The geometries are based on the Rowland circle. In Johann and Johansson geometry the diameter of the Rowland circle is defined by a spherically bent analyzer crystal. Sample, crystal and detector and moved along this Rowland to change the Bragg angle and thus to perform and energy scan.


Selected References

[1] A. Meisel, G. Leonhardt, and R. Szargan. X-ray Spectra and Chemnical Binding, Chemical Physics Vol 37. Springer Verlag, 1989

[2] W. Sch├╝lke, Electron Dynamics by Inelastic X-Ray Scattering (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2007)

[3] J. Hoszowska, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 376, 129 (1996)

[4] K. Sakurai and H. Eba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 38, 650 (1999)

[5] U. Bergmann and S. P. Cramer, in Crystal and Multilayer Optics (SPIE, San Diego, 1998), Vol. 3448, p. 198

[6] H. Hayashi, et al., J. Electron Spec. Rel. Phen. 136, 191 (2004)

[7] E. Welter, et al., J. Synch. Rad. 12, 448 (2005)

[8] S. Huotari, et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77 (2006)

[9] A. C. Hudson, et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78 (2007)

[10] J. P. Hill, et al., J. Synch. Rad. 14, 361 (2007)

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